# ARMA stochastic process¶

(1)¶

where the coefficients of the recurrence are matrix in and is white noise discretized on the same time grid as the process .

The coefficients form the Auto Regressive (AR) part of the model, while the coefficients the Moving Average (MA) part.

We introduce the homogeneous system associated to (1):

(2)¶

To get stationary solutions of (1), it is necessary to get its characteristic polynomial defined in (3):

(3)¶

Thus the solutions of (2) are of the form where the are the roots of the polynomials defined in (3) and is a polynomials of degree the order of the root :

The processes decrease with time if and only if the modulus of all the components of the roots are less than 1:

(4)¶

Once given the coefficients of the model , we evaluate the roots of the polynomials and checks the previous condition (4). The roots , are the eigenvalues of the matrix which writes in dimension as:

(5)¶

and in dimension 1:

(6)¶

The matrix is known to be the companion matrix.

It is important to note that:

- when asking for a
*realization*of the stationary process modeled by , one has to obtain a realization that does not depend on the current state of the process; - whereas, when one asks for a
*possible future*extending a particular current state of the process, the realization of the model must depend on that current sate.

How to proceed to respect these constraints?

If we note and two distinct solutions of (1) associated to two distinct initial states, then, the process is solution of the homogeneous equation associated to (1) and then decreases with time under the condition (4). Let us note the number such that:

(7)¶

where the are the roots of the polynomials (3) and is the precision of the computer ( ). Then, after instants, the process has disappeared, which means that the processes and do not differ any more. As a conclusion, after instants, the realization of the ARMA process does not depend any more on the initial state.

That is why, when making a realization of the ARMA model, we perform
a *thermalization step* that simply consists in realizing the
model upon additional instants, erasing the
first values and finally only retaining the other
ones. That step ensures that the realization of the process does not
depend on the initial state.

By default, the number is evaluated according to
(7) by the method *computeNThermalization*. The User could get
access to it with the method *getNThermalization* and can change the
value with the method *setNThermalization*. (In order to give back to
its default value, it is necessary to re-use the
method *computeNThermalization*).

On the contrary, in the context of getting a possible future from a specified current state, the User should care that the number of additional instants on which he wants to extend the process, is such that because beyond , the future has no link with the present. More precisely, after instants, such that:

(8)¶

where the are the components of the covariance matrix of the white noise , the influence of the initial state is of same order than the influence of the white noise.

Let us note that when the ARMA model is created without specifying the current state, we automatically proceed to a thermalization step at the creation of the ARMA object.

Before asking for the generation of a possible future, the user has to specify the current state of the ARMA model, thanks to the creation method that takes into account the current state. In that case, we do not proceed to the thermalization step.

As an ARMA model is a stochastic process, the object *ARMA* inherits
the methods of the *Process* object. Thus, it is possible to get its
marginal processes, its time grid, its dimension and to get several
realizations at a time of the process.

API:

- See
`ARMA`

- See
`ARMACoefficients`

- See
`ARMAState`

- See
`ARMALikelihoodFactory`

Examples: