# Low Discrepancy Sequence¶

At least three methods of numerical integration can be phrased as follows. Given a set in the interval [0,1], approximate the integral of a function f as the average of the function evaluated at those points:

If the points are chosen as , this is the rectangle rule.

If the points are chosen to be randomly distributed, this is the Monte Carlo method.

If the points are chosen as elements of a low-discrepancy sequence, this is the quasi-Monte Carlo method.

The **discrepancy** of a set is
defined, using Niederreiter’s notation, as

where is the s-dimensional Lebesgue measure, is the number of points in that fall into , and is the set of s-dimensional intervals or boxes of the form:

where .

The star-discrepancy D*N(P) is defined similarly, except that the supremum is taken over the set J* of intervals of the form

where is in the half-open interval .

The two are related by

**Koksma-lawka inequality**, shows that the error of such a method can be bounded by the product of two terms, one of which depends only on f, and the other one is the discrepancy of the set .

The Koksma-Hlawka inequality is sharp in the following sense: For any point set in and any > 0, there is a function with bounded variation and such that:

Therefore, the quality of a numerical integration rule depends only on the discrepancy .

where is a certain constant, depending on the sequence. These sequences are believed to have the best possible order of convergence. See also: van der Corput sequence, Halton sequences, Sobol sequences. In the case of the Haselgrove sequence, we have:

which means a worse asymptotic performance than the previous sequence, but can be interesting for finite sample size.

**Remark 1**:

We then obtain:

Be careful: using low discrepancy sequences instead of random distributed points do not lead to the same control of the variance of the approximation: in the case of random distributed points, this control is given by the Central Limit Theorem that provides confidence intervals. In the case of low discrepancy sequences, it is given by the Koksma-Hlawka inequality.

**Remark 2**:

**Remark 3**:

The Sobol can be used for dimensions up to several hundreds (but our implementation of the Sobol sequence is limited to dimension less or equal to 40).

The Halton or reverse Halton sequences should preferably not be used for dimensions greater than 8;

The Faure sequences should preferably not be used for dimensions greater than 25;

Use Haselgrove sequences should preferably not be used for dimensions greater than 50;

Low-discrepancy sequences are also called quasi-random or sub-random sequences, but it can be confusing as they are deterministic and that they don’t have the same statistical properties as traditional pseudo-random sequences.

API:

Examples:

References:

Inna Krykova,

*Evaluating of path-dependent securities with low discrepancy methods*, Master of Science Thesis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2003.Wikipedia contributors,

*Low-discrepancy sequence.*, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 10 April 2012, 17:48 UTC, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low-discrepancy_sequence